For what was as he, patronymic of Vissarionovna. But not only that.
Talented microbiologist Zinaida yermolyeva to mass production of penicillin in fighting Stalingrad. And saved thousands of soldiers ‘ lives. At that time, the Americans demanded $ 30 million for providing the technology for the production of antibiotic.
English scientist Alexander Fleming, who discovered a new medicine — an antibiotic penicillin, believed that it should belong to all and not patented drug.
But otherwise decided in the United States. There was mass production of medicines. At this time already was at war with Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union was asked to share a miracle drug. However, the Yankees demanded for its technology of $ 30 million. Then yermolyeva stated that the Soviet scientists themselves can produce penicillin. And during the war she succeeded. By another direction of scientific research — the study of cholera germs is also the victory at Stalingrad was largely secured through the efforts of this amazing woman. There she was named a Marshal of the invisible front.
ZV ermoleva was born 24 Oct 1898 in a family of Cossack Khutor Frolov Donskoy province. After graduating from high school in Novocherkassk entered the medical faculty Severo-the Caucasian University in Rostov-on-don (1917-1921). Research Zinaida vissarionovna started in his student years. Her first teacher was deeply interested in the young listener Microbiology, which she devoted almost her entire life.
She then headed the Department of biochemistry of microbes in the Biochemical Institute. A. N. Bach in Moscow. This Department in 1934 became part of the all-Union Institute of experimental medicine. From 1945 to 1947, 3. V. yermolyeva — Director of the Institute of biological prevention of infections. In 1947. on the basis of this Institute was established Institute of penicillin (in the following, the research Institute of antibiotics), where she headed the Department of experimental therapy. One of the important directions of scientific activities of Zinaida Vissarionovna was the study of cholera. To prove the role of V. cholerae in the initiation of gastrointestinal diseases, yermolyeva conducted a dangerous experiment on themselves by taking 1.5 billion microbial bodies of the vibrios. 18 hours later came the diarrhea, then developed the clinical picture is classical cholera disease. So for the first time in the history yermolyeva was isolated from the intestine of a patient with cholera (i.e. your body) the microbe — causative agent of this disease. Today we know that against deadly infectious diseases cholera is such an antimicrobial drug bacteriophage. More precisely, it is not just a drug, but a live virus that infects the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. Zinaida vissarionovna studied and the ways of combating intestinal infections, including cholera bacteriophage.
In 1942, according to intelligence in the German army, fit to Stalingrad, there was an enormous outbreak of cholera. Was afraid the infection will spread to our territory. Ermolieva together with a group of its employees was sent to Stalingrad to prevent an epidemic among our troops. Stalingrad was exported all stocks of cholera bacteriophage, and all through the city (and it’s soldiers arriving trains, departing trains with the wounded, citizens) — all received a dose of the drug.
However, the drug wasn’t enough. The amount, which was created in the laboratory of the Institute in Moscow, was killed along with the downed aircraft carrying goods. And then yermolyeva decided to bacteriophage in place. In the basement there was a laboratory organized, the scouts went to the front line, at the direction Ermolovoi had been stealing corpses from the cholera of the Germans, and on the basis of these corpses in the laboratory creating the necessary amount of the drug. The flash on our side was prevented. Stalin, who called Ermolieva «sister» (also Vissarionovna), and promised to fulfill her request. Yermolyeva asked to vacate sentenced to ten years imprisonment on fake charges that he allegedly mixed «salt-water» culture of Vibrio cholerae, the first head of the Department of Microbiology at the Institute of improvement of doctors, and «part-time», her ex-husband, L. A. Zilber. Please Ermolovoi was granted.
Awarded for merit to the Fatherland Stalin prize Zinaida vissarionovna given to the construction of the fighter. With her name on Board the fighter went into battle.
Soviet penicillin was called crostatina More than 30 years of his life Zinaida vissarionovna devoted to the study of antibiotics. In this region it belongs to a priority of the discoverer, its work on this issue was of great importance for clinical medicine.
The name Z. V. Ermolyeva is inextricably linked to the creation of the first domestic penicillin, the emergence of the science of antibiotics and their widespread use in our country. A large number of injured in the first period of the great Patriotic war required a high level of development and immediate introduction into medical practice of highly effective drugs to combat wound infection.
It was at this time (1942) Ermolovoi and her staff at the Institute of epidemiology and Microbiology, was isolated the first native penicillin — krustozin. Already in 1943. the laboratory began to prepare penicillin for clinical trials. Working almost around the clock in extremely difficult conditions of the war years, academic and her students received, were tested for activity, sterility and safety and sent to the clinic of the precious drug. The first test was conducted in Yauzskaya hospital, which housed the hospital. It was here that penicillin created under the direction of Zinaida Vissarionovna, received universal recognition. At the beginning of 1944. here we compared the efficiency of domestic and English penicillins, which brought one of its founders, the famous G. Florey of Oxford. The treatment was performed in two groups wounded with sepsis, who were in equally serious condition. And although the domestic penicillin — krustozin was less clear and it was used in smaller doses, the effect of the treatment was not worse than the use of the English drug. In the brigade, headed by the chief surgeon of the Soviet Army, N. N. Burdenko, ZV ermoleva went to the First Baltic front, where the Russian penicillin was successfully used to prevent complications in severe wounds. With the direct participation of Z. V. Ermolyeva in late 1944. on the basis of factory of endocrine preparations in Moscow opened a pilot plant, which began production of liquid concentrated penicillin. So, in the difficult years of the great Patriotic war began a nice way of domestic penicillin, created by Zinaida Vissarionovna Ermoleva.