The history of the Soviet filmstrips. Footage of our childhood (16 photos)


Each of us cherishes in his heart the memories of childhood. Joyful or sad, light or full of bitterness, they serve as a bridge that connects us today, adults and solid, with the young children that we were once.
For many of us such vivid memories can become the filmstrips we watched in childhood.

The quiet hum of the projector-filmoscope and bright beam that turns a white sheet on the wall in the magic screen, which alternate in color pictures… All of which will forever remain in the memory of the child. Remember your mood at that moment? Joy and impatience, while the older set lens charged film with a Filmstrip in the projector, your delight in the moment when on the wall the first frame and the story begins… Our present life is difficult to imagine without TVs, DVD players, computers, and other marvels of engineering, but they will not be able to dislodge from your heart this pure childish joy from the color stories drawn by ray of light on the white sheet.

A Filmstrip is a series of positive images (slides), United by the common theme in the short film, consisting typically of 20-50 personnel. The Filmstrip is associated with the comic book, cartoon, book illustration, and different from them. The name itself comes from the Greek δια, which in this context means «moving from beginning to end,» and eng. film — roll pictures(cinema)film.

Slide film is based on the change of static frames (unlike cinema). His frame closer to easel painting or graphics, so some artists will include a Filmstrip to a fine art. In the frame of Filmstrip movement is present, the expression is like in any work of art. In this acute question of the transition from frame to frame, their clutches and combinations, as well as the problem of matching text to image.

The word «Filmstrip» and the object which it designates, is familiar to all adults, grew out of the Soviet children. The number of people who do not know what a Filmstrip is increasing every day. To explain what a Filmstrip, is not so simple. Because the Filmstrip is not only a story told using text and images, is divided into frames. It is also a kind of technique of telling a story to the viewer, where each frame is treated separately.

The Filmstrip is also a pastime, organized by the manual movement of personnel, reading the captions aloud, and a collective viewing of the images projected on the screen in the dark. Filmstrips are an integral part of Soviet life and culture.

In the second half of the twentieth century filmstrips were used extensively in the USSR, they were common in everyday life, in particular many filmstrips — illustrated tales, historical and literary works. Technical filmstrips intended for the organization of the educational process.

Viewing of slides is using filmoscope or overhead projector, projecting the image on the screen, in the simplest case it was a white wall or sheet.

The projector PD-2

In the countries of Western Europe and America simultaneously with the film strips there were some types of home screen of entertainment for children and adults, but only in our country, the practice of viewing art slides was distributed everywhere. The promotion of art filmstrips contributed to the love of the audience and the support of the state. But the Soviet Filmstrip, like the cartoon, by the enthusiasts. Filmstrips were a new technical step that allows you to view images with inexpensive equipment of the type «magic lantern» (a device for projection of images).

Magic lantern

It is interesting to note that the Filmstrip appeared much earlier film and even photography. The earliest devices, magic lanterns, the design principles which were not significantly different from the projectors of the XX century, belong to the first half of the XVI century.

By the end of the XIX century, the Filmstrip has already occupied a firm place in people’s lives. The slides were produced both on film and on glass. Held mass demonstrations, mainly in education, rarely for entertainment purposes. In pre-revolutionary Russia was filmstrips in science, geography, most of the «vague pictures» was devoted to the history of the Russian state («the 25th anniversary of the reign of Emperor Alexander II», «SV. Cyril and Methodius»), were also dramatizations of literary works («Ice house», «Masquerade»). An exhibition of paintings accompanied by a reading aloud of the brochure that was attached to each picture.

One of the first projectors was a unit called «IZBACI» constructed employee Glavpolitprosvet of Mersini. Built-in Dynamo and rheostat were given the opportunity to use it where there was no electricity.

The technology of manufacture of the filmstrips as illustrative material has replaced the previous technology of using a separate glass slides. The slides were not very comfortable, as had a lot of weight (made on glass photographic plates), and storage needed a lot of space.

In 1930 in Moscow was founded the Studio «Filmstrip», which produced the first black-and-white, and then colored filmstrips. Filmstrips were viewed as a means of propaganda, they were used for a training school, lectures and advocacy work, they did not require sophisticated equipment, and the performance impact was close to the movies.

In 1934 he was made the first filmstrips for children «baggage» and «Fire» (by S. Marshak), «Girl revushka» (by A. Barto), and several others. Later, there were filmstrips for films («the New Gulliver» in 1940, «Battleship «Potemkin»», «the cranes are Flying», etc.).

In the Studio «Filmstrip» worked as authors and consultants, many well-known writers: Tolstoy, L. Kassil, K. Chukovsky, S. Marshak, S. Mikhalkov, V. Bianchi, and others. In creating filmstrips participated artists: E. Evgen, Kukryniksy, V. Suteev, K. Rotov, V. Radlov, A. Bray, and others.

Since the late 50-ies of the production of art has become a mass filmstrips: Studio «Filmstrip» began to produce 300-400 titles of filmstrips a year. It was launched announced filmstrips, sound for them was recorded on gramophone records; educational films produced the accompanying text in the form of booklet. An important step was the transition from flammable film on the basis of nitrocellulose safe «acetate» basis.

With the 60-70-ies of XX century, with the advent of more sophisticated projectors, epidiascopes, filming and film projection apparatus for narrow film (16 mm and 8 mm) that allows you to view how old filmstrips and colored professional and Amateur slides and movies, the decline of the «era of filmstrips».

There are now digitized slides that can be recorded on a USB flash drive or hard drive and played back using a conventional projector. Some filmstrips can even look online for thematic sites (the links we share at the end of the publication).

But perhaps even new technologies not able to fully replace the cozy wonder of the «magic lantern». Otherwise it can not be, because the world of the Filmstrip — this extraordinary world. To extinguish the light in the room, direct the projector on a white wall and meet your favorite characters — it means to forget about the multichannel speakers, plasma panels and home theaters; it’s like to arrive in an expensive car in my old apartment and suddenly find there’s a Teddy bear, who were once best childhood friend…

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